1894 Buganda Agreement

5. The laws enacted by Her Majesty`s Government for the General Management of the Ugandan Protectorate apply in the same way to the Kingdom of Uganda, unless they conflict with the provisions of this agreement, the provisions of this agreement being a special exception for the Kingdom of Uganda. The agreement was negotiated by Alfred Tucker, Bishop of Uganda,[5] and signed, among others, by Mr. Katikiro Apollo Kagwa, on behalf of Kabaka (Daudi Cwa II), then a young child, and Sir Harry Johnston on behalf of the British colonial government. The agreement stipulated that Kabaka should exercise direct control over the indigenous people of Buganda, who administer justice by Lukiiko and its officials. [6] He also consolidated the power of Bakungu`s majority-Protestant client leaders, led by Kagwa. The British sent few civil servants to run the country and relied mainly on the Bakungu chiefs. For decades, they have been privileged because of their political abilities, their Christianity, their friendly relations with the British, their ability to collect taxes and Entebbe`s proximity to Uganda`s capital. In the 1920s, British administrators were more confident and needed less military or administrative support.

[4] The negotiations that led to the return of Kabaka resulted in a similar outcome to that of Commissioner Johnston`s negotiations in 1900; Although they seemed to satisfy the British, they were a landslide victory for baganda. Cohen ensured Kabaka`s agreement not to oppose independence within Uganda`s broader framework. In return, not only was Kabaka reinstated, but for the first time since 1889, the monarch gained the power to appoint and dismiss its leaders (Buganda government officials) instead of acting as mere figureheads while leading government affairs. Unlike the treaties of 1893 and 1894, the Ugandan Convention of 1900 included clear borders of the Kingdom of Uganda, a land ownership system and a tax policy. [3] In 1894, the Ugandan protectorate was established and the territory was extended beyond the Borders of Buganda to an area roughly equivalent to that of present-day Uganda. At the request of Sir Gerald Portal, Alfred Tucker, Bishop of East Africa and later Bishop of Uganda, asked the British authorities to take control of Uganda. [2] On 29 May 1893, a contract between Portal and Kabaka Mwanga secured Uganda as a British protectorate. On August 27, 1894, Mwanga was forced to sign another contract with Colonel H.E. Colvile, who favoured the conventional acquisition of the territory. [3] Although the treaties of 1893 and 1894 were concluded because Uganda, as defined by the Berlin Conference, stumbled upon the British sphere of influence, Britain did not have the sanctity of traditional leaders and their peoples.

It was important that an agreement be reached, contrary to a treaty, so that British domination would become de jure and not de facto. [3] On 18 June 1894, the British government declared that Uganda would be protected by the United Kingdom as a protectorate. The Ugandan protectorate was a protectorate of the British Empire from 1894 to 1962. In 1893, the Imperial British East Africa Company transferred its administrative rights to the British government over territories composed mainly of the Kingdom of Buganda. Assuming that the territory of the Kingdom of Uganda, which extends within the borders mentioned in the agreement, amounts to 19,600 square miles, it will be divided into the following proportions: by establishing Uganda`s northern border as the Kafu River, the Colvile Agreement of 1894 formalized Colvile`s promise to preserve certain areas in exchange for its support against Bunyoro. [1] Two of the „lost counties“ (Buyaga and Bugangaizi) were returned to Bunyoro after the referendum on lost counties in Uganda in 1964. [7] Before 1894, local African political units were made up of leaders or kingdoms.

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