„I think it may be a useful pause in the downward spiral of U.S.-China relations,“ Susan Shirk, a professor at the University of California, said of the trade deal. Today, we are taking an important step that china has never taken towards a future of fair and reciprocal trade, as we sign the first phase of the historic U.S.-China trade agreement. Together, we are correcting the injustices of the past and creating a future of economic justice and security for American workers, farmers and families. And it will be a great agreement for both countries. That is well over $200 billion, and it will grow every year. It also unites countries. U.S. sales of cars, trucks and parts also fell to just 33 percent of the previous target. Before the trade war, China was the second largest export market for U.S.
vehicles. In July 2018, China returned the favor against Trump`s tariffs with a 25% tariff on U.S. cars. U.S. exports then fell by more than a third due to the relocation of production for Chinese consumers to other sites and the non-recovery of U.S. exports since then. Tesla, for example, announced in late 2018 that it would accelerate construction of a new plant in Shanghai and relocate U.S. production to Chinese consumers.
The company stressed that Trump`s tariffs on auto parts and China`s retaliatory measures against finished cars had not made U.S. exports to China competitive. In response to this trade war policy, BMW relocated some of its production from South Carolina to China.5 According to an analysis by the Peterson Institute for International Economics, in January 2018, before the start of the trade war, China imposed uniform tariffs of 8% on average on all its importers. By June 2019, tariffs on U.S. imports had risen to 20.7%, while tariffs on other countries had fallen to 6.7%.  The analysis also showed that average U.S. tariffs on Chinese products rose from 3.1% in 2017 to 24.3% in August 2019.  In the end, the first phase agreement was disappointed because it seriously damaged the U.S. economy with the trade war, while it failed to make significant progress in addressing the fundamental structural imbalances in U.S.-China trade relations.